Several health issues such as mortality rate, epidemics of diseases, drug abuse, sexual and reproductive health have been existed throughout the decade. Goal 3 of UN Sustainable Development Goals states “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages” (UN, 2016). Multi-centric health improvement model has been necessitated to unravel existing health issues at different levels.
A number of neglected tropical diseases including buruli ulcer, chagas disease, cysticercosis, dengue fever, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma and others are prevalent in low to middle income countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America (CDC, 2011; Global Network, 2015; londonntd, 2016). Intervention measures such as mass treatment, individual treatment and cure, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), vector control and veterinary public health have been taken against neglected tropical diseases and national elimination of NTDs was achieved by 50 countries in 2014(WHO,2016). More than 5.9 million children under 5 years old died in 2015 and target 3.2 of UN sustainable development goals aims to achieve under 5 mortality rate as low as 25 per 1000 live births by 2030 (WHO,2016).
Road traffic accidents and associated deaths and injuries has alarming trend worldwide and global health observatory (GHO) data suggests 1.25 million road traffic deaths globally in 2013 (WHO, 2016). Minimization of road traffic accident related deaths and injuries have been taken as urgent priority by UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Environmental hazards and pollution are causing significant health damages. Water, air, and soil pollution caused about 40 percent deaths worldwide (Lang, 2007). Anderson (2015) identified carbondioxide, ammonia, chlorine, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid as top five hazardous chemicals causing injuries from acute chemical incidents. Approximately 6.5 million deaths have been attributed to household and ambient air pollution in 2012 (UN, 2016). Infectious diseases are likely to occur from faecal contamination of water and soil and poor environmental conditions. Reducing the deaths and injuries caused by hazardous chemicals and environmental pollution by 2030 is one of the key targets of UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Information and empowerment of sexual and reproductive health and safe reproductive system has been considered as centre of development. Universal access to sexual and reproductive health care and knowledge and education of family planning and reproductive health is addressed by target 3.7 of SDG Goals. Prevention of unintended pregnancy and reduction of adolescent childbearing has been prioritized to improve women, children and adolescent’s health (UN, 2016). Joint actions from international agencies and national governments with appropriate policy measures and actions are required to combat health sector challenges.
Anderson, A. R. (2015) Top Five Chemicals Resulting in Injuries from Acute Chemical Incidents- Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance, Nine States, 1999-2008. Surveillance Summaries, 64(SS02); 39-46.
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Lang, S.S. (2007) Water, Air and Soil Pollution Causes 40 Percent of Deaths Worldwide, Cornell Research Survey Finds. [Online] Available at http://www.news.cornell.edu [Accessed on 08 October 2016].
London Centre for Neglected Tropical Diseases Research (2016) About NTDs [Online] Available at http://www.londonntd.org [Accessed on 08 October 2016].
The Sabin Vaccine Institute (2015) The Most Common NTDs [Online] Available at http://www.globalnetwork.org [Accessed on 08 October 2016].
United Nations (2016) Sustainable Development: Knowledge Platform [Online] Available at http://www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org [Accessed on 08 October 2016].
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World Health Organization (2016) Water Sanitation Hygiene [Online] Available at http://www.who.int [Accessed on 2016].