Policies and strategies to balance climate change consequences are formulated and implemented in adaptation process. The process involves appraisal of climate impacts, preparation for adaptation, application of appropriate actions and evaluation of the acts (UNFCC, 2011). A number of methods and approaches can be found for adaptation planning.Adaptation policies should be holistic and realistic in the real-world situations in which policies are implemented (Mathys, et. al., 2010).
Approaches based on the analysis of existing socio-economic conditions are appropriate for tackling present susceptibilities and adaptive capacity. While scenario and model driven approaches are more suited for estimating climate change impacts, particularly on a large scale. Hazard based approaches assesses existing climate hazards and future climatic risks over time and space using climatic projections. Adaptive capacity approaches assesses the existing adaptive capacity and proposes to increase the strength of adaptive capacity to contest future extremes.
Economic diversification at the national level and livelihood diversification at the community level are some common practices to implement adaptation actions. Engaging policy makers, scientists, administrators, communities, and managers in decision making helps implementing adaptation measures.
Monitoring is important step in the adaptation process which should be carried out during the project implementation and beyond. Monitoring helps planners, policy makers and practitioners to amend and adjust adaptation processes. Efficiency of adaptation process can be assessed by evaluating adaptation action implementation.
Johnston, B.R.; Hiwasaki, L.; Klaver, I.J. and Ramos Castillo, A. (2012) Water, Cultural Diversity, and Global Environmental Change, Emerging Trends, Sustainable Futures? Springer.
Mathys, T.; Strong, A.; Gallagher, K.S., Davidson, N.; Manghani, R.; Wansem, M.V.D. and Moomaw, W. (2010) Key Research Needs for Global Climate Change Policy. [Online] Available at http://fletcher.tufts.edu/ [Accessed on 12 June 2011].
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) (2011) Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability, Making Informed Adaptation Decisions. [Online] Available at http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/ [Accessed on 28 July 2011].