Policies and strategies to offset climate change consequences are formulated and implemented in the adaptation process. The process involves appraisal of climatic impacts, preparation for adaptation, application of appropriate actions and evaluation of the acts (UNFCC, 2011). A number of methods and approaches can be found for adaptation planning. Adaptive capacity approach, one of the adaptation planning approaches, assesses the existing adaptive capacity and advises to increase the strength of adaptive capacity to challenge future extremes (Adger, et al., 2012; Keys, et al., 2013; UNFCC, 2013). Adaptive capacity is the ability of an individual or system to cope with changes in the ecosystem, weather and extreme events due to climate change.
IPCC (2001) identified the key determinants of adaptive capacity as economic wealth, technology, information and skills, infrastructure, institutions and equity. Technological changes and advances in technology enhance resilience and adaptive capacity of the system and infrastructure to cope with detrimental effects of climate change. Hard and soft measures can be taken to introduce and implement adaptation technology. Technology has a crucial role in energy sector. Energy requirement increases with the economic activities. Technological solutions such as solar power, wind power, geothermal energy, hydroelectric, tidal and wave power, nuclear power, greener transport, biofuels, biodiesel, efficient buildings and geo engineering have been used as alternatives to replace depleting fossil fuels.
Enhancing the awareness of adaptation options has been included international climate change adaptation policies. Agreement to establish Climate change adaptation technology committee and network Conference of Parties (COP 16) was made in Cancun, Mexico (UNFCC, 2013). European Commission (2013) developed adaptation strategies to facilitate sharing of knowledge and information by launching the climate-ADAPT program.
Adger, W.N., Lorenzoni, I. and O’Brien, K. L. (eds) (2012) Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance. Cambridge University Press, UK.
European Commission (2013) Addressing Knowledge Gaps [Online] Available at http://ec.europa.eu/ [Accessed on 14 May 2013].
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. [Online] Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/ [Accessed on 19 May 2013].
Keys, N., Bussey, M., Thomsen, D.C., Lynam, T. and Smith, T.F. (2013) Building Adaptive Capacity in South East Queensland, Australia [Online] Available at 10.1007/s10113-012-0394-2 [Accessed on 22 March 2013].
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) (2011) Assessing Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability, Making Informed Adaptation Decisions. [Online] Available at http://unfccc.int/files/adaptation/application/ [Accessed on 19 May 2013].
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) (2013) Focus: Technology [Online] Available at http://unfccc.int/ [Accessed on 14 May 2013].