Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic Heart Disease, also known as coronary heart disease has drawn significant attention worldwide. According to NHS (2012), Coronary heart disease is killing 80,000 people each year in UK. Ischemic Heart Disease is a condition where blood supply is reduced to the heart, commonly when fatty deposits build up in the linings of the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscles. Narrowing of coronary arteries causes coronary heart diseases leading to heart attack (AHA, 2012; IHD, 2010).

Smoking, high cholesterol, diabetes, age and hypertension are identified risk factors. According to British Heart Foundation (BHF) (n.d.), smokers have double risk of coronary heart disease than non-smokers, low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood increases the risk of heart diseases and higher risks are associated with older ages.

The prevalence of heart diseases and its effects are different among male and female. Wake and Yoshiyama (2009) discussed on the gender differences in coronary artery disease, female having lower risk than man until the age of 70 and men have more sudden coronary deaths and plaque rupture than women. Risk factors such as smoking and cholesterol have more impacts in women than men. A study conducted by Castanho et. al., (2001) found that women mortality rate  due to coronary heart disease increased from 10 to 25% from the sixties to the seventies of their age, women have more complications from hypertension than men and tobacco use triples the risk of heart attack in women in Brazil.

The most common symptom is chest pain, known as angina pectoris. Angina is caused by partial blockage of coronary arteries whereas complete blockage of arteries causes heart attacks (NHS, 2012). Patient may experience acute chest pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating and anxiety. Electrocardiogram, MRI, X-ray, CT scan and coronary angiography are diagnostics tests to identify heart disease (IHD, 2010; NHS, 2012).Healthy nutrition, physical activity, avoiding tobacco, blood cholesterol and sugar level reduction are possible pathways to prevent Ischemic heart disease (BHF, n.d.; NHS, 2012).



American Heart Association (AHA) (2012) Silent Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Disease. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 12 March 2013].

British Heart Foundation (BHF) (n.d.) Risk Factors [Online] Available at [Accessed on 12 March 2013]

Castanho, V.S., Oliveira, L.S., Pinheiro, H.P., Oliveira, H. CF. , Faria, E.C (2001) Sex Difference in Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: A Study in a Brazilian Population. Bio Medical Central Public Health.

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) (2010) Ischemic Heart Disease [Online] Available at [Accessed on 12 March 2013]

National Health Service (NHS) (2012) Coronary Heart Disease [Online] Available at [Accessed on 12 March 2013]

Wake, R. and Yoshiyama, M. (2009) Gender Differences in Ischemic Heart Disease. Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery. Vol 4, 234-240.

UV Disinfection

Bacteria such as E.coli, leptospira species, salmonella species, shigella and vibrio chollrae, protozoa such as Balantidium coli, Cryptospiridium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lambia, Helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, T. solium and Trichuris trichuria and Viruses such as Entero viruses, Hepatitis A virus and Rota virus are infectious microorganisms present in contaminated drinking water (EPA, 1999). Disinfection is required to remove microorganisms from drinking water. UV radiation was first used for disinfection in 1916 in the United States of America (USA). Disinfection from UV radiation removes organic compounds, do not produce odour and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), improves taste of water, do not require storage of hazardous waste and requires minimal space for treatment [EPA, 1999; techbrief, 2000].

Growth and reproduction of micro-organism is inhibited by UV light induced genetic material disruption (EPA, 1999; Harley et al., 2008; Tech brief, 2000). UV light is capable of penetrating microbe’s cell wall without producing toxic side effects. Optimum wave length requirement to destroy bacterial activities lies between 250nm to 270nm [EPA, 1999; Harley et al., 2008; Tech brief, 2000]. Special lamp to produce a spectrum of radiation is used in disinfection process. UV radiation technology has many advantages compared to other disinfection processes. However, presence of high levels of suspended solids, turbidity, colour and soluble organic matter creates unsuitable environment for UV-radiation disinfection process.

Dose Requirement is crucial in UV radiation process. Required level of radiation dose to disrupt and destroy microorganisms must be maintained for the effectiveness. Radiation concentration, proper wavelength, exposure time, water quality, flow rate, the micro-organism’s type, source and its distance from the light source determine the effective dose requirement (techbrief, 2000).



Harley, S., Schuba, B. and Corkal, D. (2008)Ultraviolet Disinfection of Private Water Supplies for Household or Agricultural Uses [Online] Available at [Accessed on 29 December 2013].

Tech Brief (2000) Ultraviolet Disinfection [Online] Available at [Accessed on 11 December 2013].

United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) Waste Water Technology Fact Sheet Ultraviolet Disinfection. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 11 December 2013].

Technology and Economic Development

Technology has a vital role in the economic development. Internet technology, healthcare technology and energy technologies are assisting to drive the economic development and find new alternatives. More than thirty four percentage of world population are already using internet (Internetworldstats, 2013) and more than one billion people own smartphones and tablets (Manyika et al., 2013). Internet based economy will be highly influenced when two or three billion more people will have access to the internet by 2025 (Manyika et al., 2013).

Renewable energy is essential to replace finite sources of fossil fuels. Electric vehicles and solar and wind energy technologies are possible solutions to increasing energy demand. Solar and wind energy are expected to supply sixteen percentage to the global energy production by 2025 (Manyika et al., 2013). Sabbagh et al. (2013) accentuated social and environmental responsibility of technology driven economy. Development of low cost and green energy technologies is paving sustainable development pathways.

Digital technologies has been developed and used in educational and commercial sector. Sabbagh et al. (2013) estimated a value of one hundred and ninety three billion dollar contribution to the world economic output in 2011 by digital services and digitization. Manyika et al. (2013) studied twelve technological categories such as mobile internet, cloud technology, energy storage, genomics and renewable energy and estimated direct economic impact of fourteen trillion dollar to thirty-three trillion dollar in the year 2025.

Global competitiveness was redefined after invention and use of modern technologies which influence productivity and affects economic growth, supply chain and jobs. Commercial sector has been influenced with technological innovations. According to Bilbao-Osorio et al. (2013), higher benefit-to-cost ratios in all sector of production have been possible with information and communication technologies.

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Bisson, P. and Marrs, A. (2013) Disruptive Technologies: Advances that will Transform Life, Business, and the Global Economy. Mckinsey Global Institute. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 31 August 2013].

Sabbagh, K., Friedrich, R., El-Darwiche, B., Singh, M. and Koster, A. (2013) Digitization for Economic Growth and Job Creating: Regional and Industry Perspectives In: Bilbao-Osorio, B., Dutta, S. and Lanvin, B. (2013) The Global Information Technology Report 2013: Growth and Jobs in a Hyper Connected World. [Online] Available at [Accessed 31 August 2013].

Bilbao-Osorio, B., Dutta, S., Geiger, T., Lanvin, B. (2013) The Networked Readiness Index 2013: Benchmarking ICT Uptake and Support for Growth and Jobs in a Hyper connected World In: Bilbao-Osorio, B., Dutta, S. and Lanvin, B. (2013) The Global Information Technology Report 2013: Growth and Jobs in a Hyper Connected World. [Online] Available at [Accessed 31 August 2013].

Internetworldstats (2013) Internet World Stats. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 31 August 2013].