Pressure has been increased on authorities for efficient waste water treatment with environmental consideration due to rapid growth and urbanisation (EU, 2010). Various physical, mechanical, biological and chemical methods of water treatment have been used to remove suspended solids, organic matter and dissolved pollutants or toxins. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been regarded as one of the processes in the treatment of waste liquids.
Membrane bioreactor is a combination of biological treatment process and membrane filtration. Membrane is a thin material with a narrow range of pore size and high surface porosity that resist the transfer of different constituents of a fluid (Visvanathan and Aim, 2000). The membrane filters suspended solids and is an alternative for conventional filtration and sand filtration in the treatment of industrial wastewater and municipal sewage (EU, 2010).
Membrane filtration processes are classified according to the membrane pore sizes: microfiltration (0.1 to 10 microns), ultrafiltration (0.003 to…
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