Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death. According to WHO (2013), 347 million people have diabetes in the world and 80% of the disease is prevalent among populations of low and middle income countries. Twenty nine million people in UK are affected by diabetes and 850,000 people are undiagnosed patients (NHS, 2013).

Glucose, produced from carbohydrate, is used in human body cells as a source of energy. Insulin produced by pancreas, is needed in the glucose metabolism process. Cells absorb glucose from the blood in the metabolism process to produce energy stimulated by insulin [BBC, 2013]. When body cannot metabolise high amount of glucose, a condition develops known as diabetes [diabetes.org, 2012; NHS, 2013].

Diabetes can be divided into two, Type I and Type II diabetes, Type I diabetes is insulin-dependent condition where body stops producing insulin and Type 2 is insulin resistant condition where body do not produce enough insulin or cells do not react to insulin (diabetes.org, 2012; NHS, 2013]. Frequent urination, increased thirst, extreme tiredness and weight loss are common symptoms of Type I diabetes [JDRF, 2013; NHS, 2013]. Third type of diabetes is gestational diabetes.

Diabetes treatment includes reducing blood glucose levels by using medicines and subcutaneous injection of insulin. Medications such as Bignanide, Sulphonylureas, Alpha glucosidase inhibitor, prandial glucose regulators, thiazolidinediones, incretin, mimetics, and DPP-4 inhibitors are used to lower blood glucose levels [diabetes.org, 2012]. WHO (2013) suggested maintaining body weight, physically active healthy diet and avoiding tobacco use can reduce the risk of diabetes.


British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) What is Diabetes? [Online] Available at www.bbc.co.uk [Accessed on 28 October 2013].

Diabetes UK (2012) Diabetes UK: Care Connect. Campaign [Online] Available at www.diabetes.org.uk [Accessed on 28 October 2013].

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Ltd (JDRF) (2013) What is Type I Diabetes? [Online] Available at www.jdrf.co.uk [Accessed on 28 October 2013].

National Health Service (NHS, 2013) Diabetes [Online] Available at http://www.nhs.ac.uk [Accessed on 28 October 2013].

World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Diabetes [Online] Available at www.who.int [Accessed on 28 October 2013].


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