Water Demand

Goal 6 of UN Sustainable Development Goals states “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” and target 6.1 is stated as “By 2030, universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all” (UN, 2015). Access to safe drinking water has been a priority and a lot of works has been done in the past decade.  76 percent of the world population had access to safe drinking water in 1990 which increased to 89 percent in 2010 (UN, 2015).  However, a large proportion of world population still doesn’t have access to improved sources of drinking water.  One in ten people of the word are lacking safe water (Water.org, 2015). Safe, acceptable and affordable water for personal and domestic uses has been recognized as a human right (UN, 2015).

Spatial and temporal variation of freshwater availability makes even distribution of water difficult. Further, increasing population of the world increases pressure on water supply and distribution. Population or the number of water users affects the availability of safe water. Regions with abundant supply of water ten years ago have been converted to water stress regions. Water stress is the ratio of total withdrawals to total renewable supply (Reig et al., 2013). Middle East countries, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Libya and Morocco are some of the regions with extremely high water stress and central African countries, Norway, Brazil, Bolivia, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Thailand have been categorised as low water stress countries (Reig et al., 2013).

Various solution measures could be taken to tackle increasing water stress across the countries and continents. Building reservoirs is an option to tackle climatic anomalies and changing rainfall patterns however its cost effectiveness (Barford and Everitt, 2012) should be considered. Desalination, purifying sea water or salty water, is another potential option particularly useful for arid areas. More than 120 countries around the world including Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE and Spain have been using desalination plants to provide drinking water (Huffington Beach, 2010). Tampa Bay desalination plant of USA, Point Lisas, Trinidad and Almeria, Spain are some of the largest desalination plants (Huffington Beach, 2010). Desalination plant with a capacity to provide water to 1 million people has been established by Thames Water in London in 2010 (Barford and Everitt, 2012). Rainwater harvesting and other water conservation measure and water saving practices are potential measures to cope with water deficits.


Barford, V. and Everitt, L. (2012) Eight Radical Solutions for the Water Shortage. [Online] Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk [Accessed on 20 November 2015].

Huntington Beach (2010) Desalination Worldwide [Online] Available at http://www.hbfreshwater.com [Accessed on 20 November 2015].

Reig, P., Maddocks, A., and Gassert, F. (2013) World’s 36 Most Water Stressed Countries [Online] Available at http://www.wri.org [Accessed on 14 November 2015].

United Nations (2015) Global Issues: Water [Online] Available at http://www.un.org [Accessed on 30 November 2015].

United Nations (2015) Sustainable Development Goals [Online] Available at http://www.un.org [Accessed on 30 November 2015].

Water.org (2015) Safe Water [Online] Available at http://www.water.org [Accessed on 30 November 2015].


Plate Tectonics

Global geological phenomena have been described by theory of plate tectonics. Plate tectonism assumes the movement of plates at earth’s crust influenced by convection of magma inside the mantle. Tectonic plates are the segments of lithosphere which move and change in shape and size continuously (Condie, 1997). Lithosphere, the rigid and brittle outermost mechanical layer of the earth, extends up to 100 km beneath the surface (California State University, n.d.) and deformation and faults are resulted from the movements of rigid lithospheric plates. Faulted rocks in El Salvador, folded rocks along the San Andreas and folded and faulted rocks in the Himalayan region are few examples of deformed rocks (California State University, n.d.).

Activities of tectonic plates, cooling mechanism of earth’s mantle and mantle convection illustrate plate tectonics theory. Niu (2014) assumes the consumption of tectonic plates into the earth’s interior through subduction zones. Continental drift, sea floor spreading and mantle plumes are other geologic phenomena related with plate tectonics. Niu (2014) described the mantle plume as cooling mechanism of the earth’s core.

Water, its highest heat capacity and role of ocean as a sink to cool the mantle has been identified as one of the driving forces of plate tectonics (Niu, 2014). In contrast, size, circumference and ridge length of a plate has fewer influences on plate motion (Forsyth and Uyeda, 1975 cited in Niu, 2014). Movement of tectonic plates has three principle mechanisms: divergent, convergent and transform. Plates move apart from each other at divergent plate boundaries, plates crash with each other along convergent plate boundaries and plates slide with each other along a transform plate boundary (Kean University, n.d.).

California State University (n.d.) Natural Disasters [Online] Available at http://www.csus.edu [Accessed on 20 may 2015]
Condie, K.C. (1997) Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution [Online] Available at http://www.bayanbox.ir/view [Accessed on 15 May 2015].

Forsyth, D. and Uyeda, D. (1975) On the Relative Importance of the Driving Forces of Plate Motion- Geophysics Journal International, Vol 43, pp. 163-200.

Kean University (n.d.) Plate Tectonics [Online] Available at http://www.kean.edu [Accessed on 21 may 2015].

Niu, Y. (2014) Geologic Understanding of Plate Tectonics: Basic Concepts, Illustrations, Examples and New Perspectives. Global Tectonics and Metallogeny, Vol 10 (1), pp. 23-46.

Richter Scale

The devastating earthquake measuring 7.9 Richter scale has already killed more than 5000 people in Nepal.  Earthquake with higher Richter scale are more damaging and dangerous. Earthquake can be measured in different scales and Richter’s scale has been used most widely. Charles F. Richter developed the scale in 1936 at California, USA.  The intensity of the earthquake is measured by Richter scale.

Seismic waves indicate the energy transported through the earth during the earthquake. The amplitude of a wave refers to the amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position (the Physics Classroom, 2015). The amplitude has a relationship with the energy transported by the seismic wave. “The energy transported by a wave is directly proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave “(the Physics Classroom, 2015).

Richter scale measures the size of an earthquake and logarithm of the amplitude of earthquake is determining factor (BGS, n.d.). Amplitude of the earthquake increases tenfold with a whole number increase in the scale. Earthquake with a magnitude up to 5.4 is noticeable but less damaging. Severe damages to buildings and infrastructure are likely to occur from an earthquake with Richter scale 7 or higher (matter project, 1999).

Recent bigger earthquakes include Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake of Richter scale 9.1 in December 2004, Sendai, Japan earthquake of Richter scale 9.0 in March 2011 and Bio-Bio, Chile earthquake of Richter scale 8.8 in February 2010 (Philips, 2011). Earthquake can’t be predicted however high risk areas and earthquake prone zones can be identified.


British Geological Survey (BGS) (n.d.) What is Earthquake Magnitude [Online] Available at http://www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk [Accessed on 28 April 2015].

Matter Project (1999) Scales of Measuring Earthquakes [Online] Available at www.matter.org.uk [Accessed on 28 April 2015]

Philips, C. (2011) Earthquakes: The 10 Biggest in History [Online] Available at www.australiangeographic.com.au [Accessed on 28 April 2015].

The Physics Classroom (2015) Energy Transport and the Amplitude of a Wave [Online] Available at www.physicsclassroom.com [Accessed on 28 April 2015].

Toxic Chemicals in the Environment

Different forms of harmful chemicals have been released into the soil, water and air from our activities. Chemicals which can cause serious health effects, poisoning or death when ingested, inhaled or absorbed have been classified as toxic chemicals (Worldometers, n.d.). Industrial activities are major sources of chemicals into the environment. Worldometers (n.d.) estimated 310 kg of toxic chemicals being released every second in the world.

Fluoride, mercury, PCBs, perchlorate, chlorine, lead, arsenic, dioxin, DDT, MtBE, and DCPA are toxic chemicals which can be found in water (Global Healing Center, 2015). Sources, distribution and environmental effects of toxic chemicals are different. Chlorine used in disinfection, arsenic and lead occurring naturally in water, PAHs and PCBs has various toxic effects. Bio accumulative properties of mercury and lead have adverse effects on aquatic organisms and human beings (Department of Ecology, n.d.). Fluoride is carcinogenic and it has adverse effects on bone structure and acute reactions (Holistic healing, n.d.). Manganese has been identified as a neurotoxin associated with learning disabilities and deficits in intellectual functions in children (Zoni and Licchini, 2013 cited in Villanueva et al., 2014). Nitrates in drinking water have been found to have carcinogenic effects on oesophagus, stomach, bladder and colon (Villanueva et al., 2014).

Inhalation, Ingestion and direct contact with toxic substances are possible pathways of exposure to toxic chemicals (Department of Health, 2013). Toxicity could be produced by inhaling or breathing gases, vapours, dusts or mists or ingesting or swallowing of food, drink and other substances and touching the toxic substance with eyes or skin (Department of Health, 2013).


Department of Ecology (n.d.) Controlling Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound. [Online] Available at http://www.ecy.wa.gov [Accessed on 30 March 2015].

Department of Health (2013) What You Know Can Help You- An Introduction to Toxic Substances [Online] Available at www.health.ny.gov [Accessed on 31 March 2015].

Global Healing Center (2015) What Other Toxic Chemicals in Water Affect My Health? [Online] Available at www.globalhealingcenter.com [Accessed on 30 March 2015].

Holistic Healing (n.d.) Fluoridation/Fluoride : Toxic Chemicals in Your Water [Online] Available at http://www.holisticmed.com [Accesse on 31 March 2015].

Villanueva, C.M. , Kogevinas, M. , Lordier, S. , Templeton, M.R., Vermeulen, R., Nuckols, J. R. , Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. and Levallois, P. (2014) Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs. Environmental Health Prospect. Vol 122 (3), pp. 213-221

Worldometers (n.d.) Toxic Chemicals [Online] Available at www.worldometers.info [Accessed on 30 March 2015].

Zoni, S. and Lucchini, R.C. (2013) Manganese Exposure Cognitive Motor and Behavioural Effects on Children : A Review of Recent Findings. Curr Opin Pediatr 25: 255-260 Cited In Villanueva, C.M. , Kogevinas, M. , Lordier, S. , Templeton, M.R., Vermeulen, R., Nuckols, J. R. , Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J. and Levallois, P. (2014) Assessing Exposure and Health Consequences of Chemicals in Drinking Water: Current State of Knowledge and Research Needs. Environmental Health Prospect. Vol 122 (3), pp. 213-221

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is a process of fracturing rock with the help of mixed fluid pressurization to obtain gas from the shale. Shallow wells have limitations of gas production due to low permeability of sedimentary rock containing gas. Hydraulic fracturing facilitates the fluids to flow in the rock and production of gas from the shale (Arthur and Coughlin, 2008).

Water based fluids are the most common fracturing fluid however foam based, oil based, acid based, alcohol based and emulsion based fluids can be used in hydraulic fracturing (Gandossi, 2013). Enormous amount of freshwater is needed in fracturing process and the waste water has to be treated before releasing into the environment. Fracturing processing may increase the risk of drinking water contamination of the adjacent areas. Environmental risks such as methane pollution, air pollution impacts, blowouts due to gas explosion, fracking-induced earthquakes may be associated with hydraulic fracking and production of gas (Hoffman, J., 2012).

Toxic chemicals used during the fracturing process and release of toxic and radioactive chemicals are detrimental to the environment (networkforphl.org, n.d.). Chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, ammonium chloride, ammonium persulfate, isopropanol, formic acid, potassium metaborate, triethanol -amine zirconate, methanol, citric acid, lauryl sulfate, naphthalene are used in the mixed fracturing fluid (fracfocus.org, 2015). Chemicals used in the fracturing process acts as clay stabilizer, breaker, biocide, cross- linker, friction reducer, gelling agent, iron control, pH adjusting agent, scale inhibitor and surfactant (fracfocus.org, 2015). Shales containing organic acids, volatile organic compounds, trace elements such as mercury, lead and arsenic and radioactive elements such as radium, thorium and uranium can be released into the environment (networkforphl.org, n.d.).


Arthur, J.D. and Coughlin, B.J. (2008) Evaluating the Environmental Implications of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs [Online] Available at http://www.all-llc.com [Accessed on 23 February 2015].

FracFocus (2015) What Chemicals are Used [Online] Available at http://www.fracfocus.org [Accessed on 23 February 2015].

Gandossi, L. (2013) An Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing and other Formation Stimulation Technologies for Shale Gas Production [Online] Available at http://www.ec.europa.eu [Accessed on 23 February 2015].

Hoffman, J. (2012) Potential Health and Environmental Effects of Hydro fracturing in the Williston Basin, Montana [Online] Available at http://www.carleton.edu [Accessed on 23 February 2015].

Network for Public Health Law (n.d.) Environmental Impacts Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Available at http://www.networkforphl.org [Accessed on 23 February 2015].


Antibiotics have been used in the treatment of various diseases.  However, development of drug resistance among various species of micro-organisms reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics. Centres for Disease Control (2013) identified drug resistant species such as  Clostridium difficile , Enterobacteriaceae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae  as urgent threats and acinetobacter, camphylobacter, candida, enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus  and Staphylococcus pnuemoniae  as serious threats to human health in USA.

Nanotechnology in drug administration and use of nanobiotics has been found to be more effective in drug resistant infection control and cancer treatment (Moodley, n.d.). Nanomaterials are particles of diameter between 1 to 100 nm which are capable of circulating human body, cells and blood vessels (European Agency, n.d.). Nanobiotics or the nanomaterials containing drugs are more effective in diagnosis, monitoring, treatment and prevention of diseases.

Nanomaterials such as silver, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, gold chitosan, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, dendrimers, liquid based nanoparticles, ceramic nanoparticels and nitric-oxide releasing nanoparticles can be applied as nanobiotics in the treatment of diseases (Moodley, n.d.). Crystalline nanoparticles can be used in X-ray based cancer treatment (understandingnano.com, 2009). Peptide rings, 2.5 nm rings of customised amino acids, have been found to be operative in tackling with staphylococcus aureus, a drug resistant bacterium (Mason, 2001).

Adverse side effects could be associated with nanobiotic treatment. Nanomaterials could induce inflammation, tissue damage, oxidative stress, chronic toxicity, cytotoxicity, fibrosis and tumer generation (European Agency, n.d.). Development and application of nanobiotic drugs and minimization of adverse effects will minimize the health complications associated with drug resistant micro-organisms.


Centres for Disease Control (CDC) (2013) Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 [Online] Available at www.cdc.gov [Accessed on 26 January 2015].

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (n.d.) Nanomaterials in the Healthcare Sector: Occupational Risk and Prevention [Online] Available at http://www.osha.europa.eu [Accessed on 25 January 2015].

Mason, J. (2001) Nanobiotic Life Saver [Online] Available at http://www.technologyreview.com [Accessed on 26 January 2015].

Moodley, N. (n.d.) Antimicrobial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-coated Gold Nanoparticles on Selected Pathogens [Online] Available at http://www.dut.ac.za  [Accessed on 25 January 2015].

Understandingnano.com (2009) Nanoparticles for Enhanced X-ray treatment of Cancer Tumours [Online] Available at http://www.understandingnano.com [Accessed on 26 January 2015].

Cadmium in Drinking Water

Heavy metals, metals with specific density of more than 5 gm/cm3, have been used in everyday applications. Human exposure to heavy metals has immediate health concerns. Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, and Arsenic were identified as major threats to human health (Jarup, 2003). Cadmium has been commercially used in PVC products, colour pigment, alloys, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries and anti-corrosion agent (IFC, 1998; Jarup, 2003). Drinking water can be contaminated with Cadmium, caused by impure galvanized pipes and cadmium-containing solders in fittings, water heaters, water coolers and taps (WHO, 2011).

Cadmium is highly toxic, non-degradable and persistent element (Rao et al., 2010). Toxic form of Cadmium is free Cadmium divalent ion however other forms such as organic and inorganic ligands may produce adverse health effects (Environment Canada, 2014). Hydrated ion, inorganic and organic complex forms of Cadmium can be found in surface and ground water.  Behaviour of Cadmium in water is affected by pH, hardness, alkalinity, oxidation reduction potential and type and abundance of organic ligands and hydroxides (Environment Canada, 2014). Toxicity of Cadmium is highly influenced by water hardness, the lower the water hardness the lower the toxicity of Cadmium (Environment Canada, 2014).

Causative factors for Cadmium pollution in water include mine water from mine tailings, process water from smelters, phosphate mining and electroplating wastes (IFC, 1998). Diffuse cadmium pollution is mainly caused by fertilizers produced from phosphate ores (WHO, 2011). Soil cadmium contamination is produced from industrial emissions and the application of fertilizer and sewage sludge to farm land (Jarup, 2003). Various pollutants removal technologies can be applied to remove cadmium from drinking water. Chemical precipitation, ion exchange, cementation, solvent extraction, membrane separation and adsorption are available technologies for the removal of cadmium from water (Rao et al., 2010).


Environment Canada (2014) Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life [Online] Available at www.ceqg-rcqu.ccme.ca [Accessed on 23 December 2014].

International Finance Corporation (IFC)(1998) Cadmium [Online] Available at www.ifc.org [Accessed on 23 December 2014].

Jarup, L. (2003) Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination. British Medical Bulletin, Vol 68 (1), pp 167-182.

Rao, K.S., Mohapatra, M., Anand, S and Venkateswarl, P. (2010) Review of Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solutions. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol 2 (7), pp 81-103.

World Health Organization (WHO)(2011) Cadmium in Drinking Water: Background Document for Development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. [Online] Available at http://www.who.int [Accessed on 23 December 2014].

Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner were jointly awarded 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of super- resolved fluorescence microscopy. Microscope has been used as a powerful scientific instrument in the study of cell, cell biology and cellular functions. Cellular structure and objects occurs in the size range of tens to few hundreds nano meters however conventional light microscopy is only capable to handle cellular structure that are 200 to 350 nm apart (Schermelleh et al., 2010). Super resolution microscopy resolves more cellular structure at the macromolecular level.  Electron microscopy can resolve molecular and atomic structures with smaller wavelengths of electronic beam however energies of electrons have been found to be destructive for biological samples (Aguet, 3009)

Point spread function (PSF) can be defined as “the fixed size of the spread of a single point of light that is diffracted through a microscope” (Galbraith and Galbraith, 2011). Higher resolution microscopy helps to study smaller cellular structures than the PSF size of conventional microscopes. Cellular objects which are closer than PSF width of microscope appears as a single objects. Galbraith and Galbraith (2011) defined super-resolution microscopy as a technique which has at least double PSF width value than conventional microscopy.

Fluorophores are the molecules with an ability to fluoresce and fluorescence is the phenomenon where fluorophore emits light (Aguet, 2009). Fluoroscence microscopy has been used to distinguish cellular structure and specific protein by marking them (Aguet, 2009). Super resolution fluorescence microscopy has been used to study structures and functions of sub-cellular components and dynamic processes within the cell.


Aguet, F. (2009) Super-Resolution Fluoroscence Microscopy Based on Physical Models [Online] Available at www.bigwww.epfl.ch [Accessed on 21 November 2014].

Galbraith, C.G. and Galbraith, J.A. (2011) Super-Resolution Microscopy at a Glance. Journal of Cell Science, Vol 124, pp 1607-1611.

Schermelleh, L., Heintzmann, R. and Leonhardt, H.  (2010) A Guide to Super-Resolution Fluoroscence Microscopy. JCB Review, Vol 190(2), pp 165-175.


Microorganisms can be used to degrade waste pollutants in bio-augmentation process. Bio- augmentation is a sustainable approach to pollutant remediation. Bio-augmentation is a mimic of natural process, it uses less energy, it releases less air pollutant and it helps to destroy the contaminants permanently (Environmental Expert, 2009). Effectiveness and affordability of bio augmentation, a powerful remediation measure, has been proved in the past few decades.

Pre-adapted native microbes or genetically modified microorganisms have been used in bio augmentation for pollution biodegradation (Nasseri et al., 2010).  Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Sphingobium, Alcaligens, Achromobacter, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Bacillus and Fungal species such as Absidia, Achremonium, Aspergillus, Verticillium, Pencillium and Mucor have been applied to degrade pollutants (Gentry et al., 2004; Mrozik and Piotrowska-Seget, 2009).

Biodegradation of compounds such as nitrophenols, chlorinated solvents, methyl tert-butyl ether, oil, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides such as atrazine, dicamba and carbofuran has been carried out with microorganisms induced bio-augmentation (Gentry et al., 2004).  Effective bio augmentation technologies include cell culture, activated soil bio-augmentation, gene bio augmentation and phytoremediation (Gentry et al., 2004).

Factors such as contaminant concentrations, site hydro geochemical conditions, and competition with indigenous microorganisms, in situ growth, transport and decay of microbes affect the amount of microorganisms needed for remediation which ultimately affects the cost and performance associated with bio augmentation (Steffan et al., 2010). Temperature, moisture, pH, organic matter, aeration, nutrient content and soil type are determining factors for bio augmentation (Gentry et al., 2004; Mrozik and Piotrowska-Seget, 2009).


Cornelius, J. R. and Faigle, J.D. (2008) Bio-augmentation: An Effective Method for Reducing Contaminant Concentrations. [Online] Available at http://www.biovationenv.vom [Accessed on 11 October 2014].

Environmental Expert (2009) Bio-augmentation is a cost effective and sustainable remediation alternative [Online] Available at http://www.environmental-expert.com [Accessed on 23 October 2014].

Gentry, T.J., Rensing, C., Pepper, I.L. (2004) New Approaches for Bio-augmentation as a Remediation technology. Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 34, pp. 447-494.

Mrozik, A. and Piotrowska-Seget, Z. (2009) Bio-augmentation as a Strategy for Cleaning up Soils Contaminated with Aromatic Compounds. Microbiological Research, Vol 165(5), pp. 363-375.

Nasseri, S., Kalantary, R.R., Nourieh, N., Naddafi, K., Mahvi, A.H. and Baradaran, N. (2010) Influence of Bio-augmentation in Biodegradation of PAHs-contaminated soil in Bio-Slurry Phase Reactor. Iran Journal of Environmental Health, Science, Engineering, Vol 7(3), p. 199-208.

Steffan, R., Schaefer, C. and Lippincott, D. (2010) Bio-augmentation for Groundwater Remediation [Online] Available at http://www.clu-in.org [Accessed on 12 October 2014].

Ecological Footprint

Various tools have been developed to quantify sustainability of cities and countries. Berger (2014) listed six aspects of sustainability as aesthetic, environmental, financial, functional, political and social. Environmental Sustainability of urban or rural area can be measured with ecological footprint. Calcott and Bull (2007) defined ecological footprint as “the amount of bio productive land and sea required supporting a person’s lifestyle”.

 Ecological footprint of a city can be calculated using individual’s requirement of productive land and sea using their current expenses in housing, transport, food, consumer items, private services, public services, capital investment and miscellaneous sectors (Calcott and Bull, 2007). Ecological footprint can be expressed in global hectares. Human consumption of resources equivalent to average productivity of global hectares is expressed in ecological footprint (IIED, 2006).

In 2007, global ecological footprint was about 1.5 times the earth’s bio-capacity (Lee and Peng, 2014). Significant difference can be observed between the ecological footprints of the continents. North America has an ecological footprint of 8.7 global hectares (gha) per person. In contrast, Africa has a footprint of 1.4 gha per person (Lee and Peng, 2014).

Urbanization has been identified as a triggering factor for larger ecological footprint as it increases resource consumption (WWF, 2014).  Calcott and Bull (2007) studied the ecological footprint of British cities and ranked them based on the number of plants required to meet current consumption trend. Newport and Plymouth have been ranked as number 1 requiring less resources (2.78 planets), London was ranked as 44 (3.05 planets) and Winchester was ranked as 60 (3.62 planets).


Berger, M. (2014) The Unsustainable City. Sustainability, Vol 6, pp. 365-374.

Calcott, A. and Bull, J. (2007) Ecological Footprint of British City Residents [Online] Available at http://www.wwf.org.uk [Accessed on 14 April 2014].

International Institute for Environment and Development (2006) Environment and Urbanization [Online] Available at http://www.sagepublication.com [Accessed on 14 April 2004].

Lee, Y and Peng, L (2014) Taiwan’s Ecological Footprint. Sustainability, Vol 6, pp 6170-6187.

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) (2014) Ecological Footprint and Sustainable Consumption in China. [Online] Available at http://www.wwfchina.org [Accessed on 24 October 2014].