Solar Windows

Solar technology has been used to produce heat and electricity. Solar PV panels are installed on the roof of a building to produce household energy. Solar technology can be applied as a solar window for energy production and conservation. Heat and energy exchange occurs through windows of a house in different ways. Non- solar heat losses and gains in the form of conduction, convection and radiation, solar heat gains in the form of radiation, ventilation and infiltration are possible pathways of energy exchange through windows (US Department of Energy, 2007).

Rate of transfer through the windows is measured as thermal transmittance or U-factor. Low U-factor of a window denotes less heat exchange through the windows which conserves energy allowing consistent and comfortable room temperature (NHPC, n.d.). Solar heat gains through the windows in the form of radiation is measured by Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and lower the value of SHGC, lesser the amount of solar heat transmitted through the window(NHPC, n.d.).

Solar window technologies have been developed to improve the energy efficiency. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) technology uses a transparent solar panel with standard mono-crystalline PV cells (Martin, 2011). BIPV solar windows have lower U-value and generated energy using PV cells (Martin, 2011). Passive solar design techniques can be applied to new homes to collect and store solar heat passively. Passive solar de-sign includes direct gain or the application of transparent south facing windows to collect heat, indirect gain or the thermal storage of collected heat between the south-facing windows and the living spaces mostly using a Trombe wall and isolated gain or sunspace similar to greenhouse (US Department of Energy, 2001).


Martin II, J. (2011) Solar PV Windows: BIPV Technology by Pythagoras Solar [Online] Available at [Accessed on 23 October 2014].

National Home Performance Council (NHPC) Understanding Energy Efficient Windows [Online] Available at [Accessed on 23 October 2014].

US Department of Energy (2001) Passive Solar Design for the Home [Online] Available at [Accessed on 23 October 2014].

US Department of Energy (2007) Selecting Windows for Energy Efficiency [Online] Available at [Accessed on 23 October 2014].


DNA Fingerprinting

Technology has a vital role in the assessment and diagnosis of health problems. Fingerprinting technology is useful in health science research. Every Individual’s DNA has specific patterns and DNA fingerprinting is used to identify the patterns of DNA (Forensic Science, 2014). Personal identification can be tested and proved with DNA fingerprinting. Restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AmpFLP) and short Tandem Repeat (STR) are main DNA fingerprinting methods (fingerprinting, 2014).  Hair, tissue and blood samples are used for DNA fingerprinting. Study cases, study questions and organisms are considered to select DNA finger printing technique (Chai, 2008).

DNA fingerprinting technology can be useful to find out the genetic traits of living beings and even dead bodies. According to Templeton (2013), DNA printing can be applied in synthetic biology to create a new life by substituting a genome. DNA printing is a quicker and less expensive method for gene therapy, working with viral genes and vaccine research (Templeton, 2013).

DNA printing has a wide range of applications including paternity disputes, identification of bodies of soldiers killed in war, diagnosis of inherited disorders like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia, haemophilia, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s chorea and marfan’s syndrome (Medindia, 2014). DNA printing can be used in biological evidence to identify criminals and data storage of personal identifications (medindia, 2014). Cossins (2012) mentioned about a geneticist Craig Venter for his idea about a 3D DNA printer. The proposed 3D DNA printer can download, print and inject vaccines at home.



Chai, H. (2008) DNA Fingerprinting using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) Nature Education 1(1): 176.

Cossins, D. (2012) Venter Supports DNA Printers [Online] Available at [Accessed on 31 January 2014].

Fingerprinting (2014) DNA Fingerprinting Methods [Online] [Accessed on 29 January 2014].

Forensic Science (2014) Guide to DNA Fingerprinting [Online] Available at [Online] Available at [Accessed on 29 January 2014].

Medindia (2014) DNA Fingerprinting [Online] Available at [Accessed on 31 January 2014].

Templeton, G. (2013) DNA Laser Printing Heralds New Day for Genomics Research [Online] Available at [Accessed on 31 January 2014].

3D Technology

Three dimensional (3D), an object with length, breadth and height, technology is becoming popular across the countries and continents. 3D technology includes 3D television, 3D cinema, 3D camera and 3D printer. 3D technology has a wider range of applications including television, computer, architecture and industry (, 2013). 3D technology can be helpful for game industry and solar energy industry.

Cinemas started showing 3D technology in the nineteenth century. The first public 3D movie was ‘The Power of Love’ produced in 1922. Viewers can perceive depth of the objects of cinema produced using special motion picture camera and stereoscopic photography (, 2013). 3D television market is booming in the recent years. In Global post (2013)’s statistics, 3D television sales increased by 72 percent in 2012 with a total shipment of 41.45 million units.

3D printing is changing the future and our social life by converting digital data into physical objects (Science Museum, 2013). Handgun with firing capacity of 50 shots has been recently produced using 3D printing technology (Guardian, 2013). 3D printer has been successful in drawing customer’s attention in the past 10 years. Price (2013) estimated 56507 units of 3D printer’s shipment in 2013, 75 percent growth in 2014 to 98065 units.

Architects, engineers and consultants can take advantage of 3D architecture of buildings and structure and its commercial applications (, 2013). 3D technologies can lead a society in a different way by changing the work patterns, business technologies and innovation. 3D technologies can transform the theory into practice by lowering the cost to the society, environment and economy.


Gibbs, S. (2013) First Metal 3D Printed Gun is Capable of Firing 50 Shots [Online] Available at [Accessed on 28 November 2013].

Global Post (2013) 3D TV Sales Growth [Online] Available at [Accessed on 24 November 2013].

Price, G. (2013) Statistics Gartner Says Worldwide Shipments of 3D Printers to Grow 49 Percent in 2013 [Online] Available at [Accessed on 29 November 2013]. <br>

Science Museum (2013) 3D Printing the Future [Online] Available at [Accessed on 28 November 2013].

Visionnw (2013) What is 3D Technology? [Online] Available at [Accessed on 28 November 2013].

Technology and Health

Health sector has been highly affected by information technology for continuous improvement of quality of healthcare. Provision of high quality and efficient health care services and easy access to health information can be ensured by the application of appropriate information technology in health sector (WHO, 2013; Zhang and Kamal, 2013). Health information technology includes administrative and financial technologies such as patient registration, electronic materials management, clinical technologies such as electronic health records, electronic monitoring of patients and electronic prescribing and infrastructure such as computers, wireless and handheld technology (, 2013;, 2004).

Medical devices or technology has a vital role in the assessment and diagnosis of health problems. According to WHO (2013), there are more than 1.5 million medical devices worldwide with more than 10000 types of generic device groups and ranges from thermometer, first aid box to complicated technology. Common information technologies used in healthcare as electronic health record (EHR), computerized provider order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support system (CDSS), Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), bar coding, radio frequency identification (RFID), automated dispensing machines (ADMs), Electronic material management (EMM), and interoperability (Medpac, 2004).

According to Medpac (2004), improvement of quality and efficiency of healthcare can be achieved by enhancing the competence of physicians, nurses, clinical technician and facilitating the patient’s access to clinical information. Implementation of new technology has cost implications and technological intervention may cause negative health outcomes. Medpac (2004) and Morrissey (2004 cited in Medpac, 2004) emphasized the consideration of cost effectiveness and return of the investment to formulate plan and policies and implement IT in the clinical settings.


Accenture (2013) Top Three Healthcare Technology Trends: Big, Personal, Social. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 17 August 2013].

Deloitte (2013) Physician Adoption of Health Information Technology: Implication for Medical Practice Leaders and Business Partners. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 16 August 2013].

Medpac (2004) Information Technology in Health Care. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 16 August 2013].

World Health Organizations (WHO) (2013) Technology, Health [Online] Available at [Accessed on 16 August 2013].

World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Medical Devices. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 15 July 2013].

Zhang, C. and Kamal, M. (2013) A Lens into Investigating Patient Engagement Using Health Information Technology. [Online] Available at [Accessed on 17 August 2013].